A 4th dimension roller coaster is a type of roller coaster in which the cars have the ability to rotate on an axis perpendicular to that of the track. This rotation is either controlled, via extra rails on the track, or uncontrolled, allowing for a ride experience which varies depending on the weight distribution of the car.
The first 4th Dimension coaster to be built was X at Six Flags Magic Mountain. It was designed and built by Arrow Dynamics and was the last ride to be made by them. The 4th Dimension design was bought along with the rest of Arrow Dynamics by S&S Worldwide. The company proceeded to sell two more 4th Dimension coasters; one in Japan, Eejanaika, and the other in China, Dinoconda. Both of these projects were manufactured by regional companies, subcontracted by S&S.
In 2007, the first ZacSpin installation opened. Kirnu was built by Intamin and is a much smaller 4th Dimension roller coaster which does not make any lateral turns. Three more ZacSpin installations have since opened.
After the 50% acquisition of S&S Worldwide by Sansei Yusoki, Co., Ltd, a new, smaller 4th Dimension roller coaster was sold to Six Flags Fiesta Texas. The product is called Free Spin. Batman The Ride opened in 2015 and features free-spinning seats. A clone of this ride opened at Six Flags Great Adventure the following year. An even smaller, and family-orientated, 4th Dimension roller coaster called Roller Ball was introduced by Ride Engineers Switzerland with the first installation opened in 2018. Like the ZacSpin and Free Spin, this coaster does not make lateral turns, however unlike previous 4th Dimension roller coasters, the cars only have seats on one side of the track.
The rotation of the cars is achieved by having four rails on the track: two of these are running rails while the other two are for spin control. The two rails that control the spin of the seats move up and down relative to the track and spin the seats using a rack and pinion gear mechanism.
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